Friday, July 29, 2011

*EASY* Egyptian Adjectives!

Adjectives are placed after the noun and act very much like nouns themselves. They must (just like nouns) agree with number and gender. The adjective can have a definite article in front of it. Whether it has one or not changes the meaning of the sentence:

* 7 = ح (haa) - sounds like an aspirated "h"
* 2 = أ (hamza) - glottal stop
* 3 = ع ('ain) - a "choked" letter sounding like an "a" you can't represent with the English alphabet

the big dog - ek kalb ek kabeer (m) 
the dog is big - ek kalb kabeer (m) 

**Remember there is no "is/ to be" in arabic!! It is simply omitted! 

To make an adjective feminine, just add "-a" to the end. 

the popular girl - el bint el ma7booba (f) 
the girl is popular - el bint ma7booba (f) 

Plurals of Adjectives!
They act the same way as nouns for the most part. There are 3 generalizations:

1. Plural adjectives with nouns that refer to people: add "-een" to the singular form of the adjective. 
the happy teacher - el modarris el mabsoot --> the happy teachers - el modarriseen el mabsooteen 
the angry tourist - el sayi7 el za3laan          --> the angry tourists - el sowwa7 el za3laneen

2. Irregular form of the plural adjective is replacing the long vowel in the middle of the word with a long "a" sound. 
the big girl - el bint ek kabeera  --> the big girls - el banat ik kuba

3. All plurals that refer to objects use the feminine singular form of the adjective. Disregard gender and number. 
the big house - el bayt ek kabeer           --> the big houses - el boyoot ek kibeera
the small bus - el otobees is soghayyar --> the small buses - el otobeesaat es soghayyara 

Credits to Lonely Planet - Egyptian Arabic  

*EASY* Egyptian Articles, Nouns & Plurals!

Arabic just has "the" the definite article. It does not have the indefinite articles, such as "a, an" (but are expressed in as a plural form below-- i.e. collective plurals). Arabic, though, has what is called moon and sun nouns. The article is affected based on which noun it proceeds. 

* 7 = ح (haa) - sounds like an aspirated "h"
* 2 = أ (hamza) - glottal stop
* 3 = ع ('ain) - a "choked" letter sounding like an "a" you can't represent with the English alphabet


"The" translates into "el" in arabic. 

book - kitaab
the book - el kitaab 

girl - bint
the girl - el bint


If the noun starts with the letters d, n, r, s, sh, t, or z then the "l" from "el" is dropped and the first consonant of the noun takes its place.

Masalan (for example)...

sun - shams 
the sun - ish shams 

back - dahr
the back - id dahr

dog - kalb
the dog - ik kalb 

In Arabic: nouns are either feminine or masculine. 

Feminine nouns mostly end with an "a" or "ya"
Masculine nouns end with any letter

Masculine nouns:
book - kitaab
morning - saba7 

Feminine nouns: 
table - tarabeeza
year - sana 

** However, there ARE exceptions!! Some masculine nouns can end in a "a" and some feminine nouns end is random letters! (mostly from parts of the body or countries). 

Exceptions for feminine nouns:
Egypt - masr
hand - eed
sun - shams
mother - omm
sister - okht

Exceptions for masculine nouns: 
air - hawa

Three types of plurals: 

1. standard
2.  dual 
3.  collective 

1. The standard takes some memorizing. Regular masculine nouns have the ending "-een." This is added directly after the noun. For regular feminine nouns, you take off the ending of "a" and add the ending "-aat"

engineer (m) - mohandis     --> engineers (m) - mohandiseen
engineer (f) - mohandisa     --> engineers (f) - mohandisaat

** Irregular plurals need to be memorized. 

house - bayt               --> houses - boyoot
school - madrassa      --> schools - madaaris
day - yom                  --> days - ayaam 

2. The dual is used when you are talking about two of something. If it ends with an "a," then you take off the "a" and add "-tayn." For every other ending, just add "-ayn" to the end of the word. 

library - maktaba      --> two libraries - maktabtayn 
book - kitaab            --> two books - kitaabayn 

3. The collective plural is used when talking about a group or class of items (such as fruits or vegetables). You use this when talking about a specific number or amount of something. It is also what can be translated into the indefinite article as "a" or "an". For form a collective plural, you just add "-a"to the end

eggplants - bitingaan        --> an eggplant - bitingana
apples - tofaa7                  --> an apple - tofaa7a
trees - shagar                    --> a tree - shagara

Credits to Lonely Planet - Egyptian Arabic  

*EASY* Egyptian Conjunctions, Demonstratives, Comparitives & Superlatives

* 7 = ح (haa) - sounds like an aspirated "h"
* 2 = أ (hamza) - glottal stop
* 3 = ع ('ain) - a "choked" letter sounding like an "a" you can't represent with the English alphabet

same as in English... 

and - wa
but - bas
or - ow
if - laow
until - lighaayat
since/ than - min
because - 3ashaan 

These must agree with number and gender of the noun that they are referring to. They go at the end of the noun.

Refers to animals, things, and plurals
This (one); that (one) (m)  - da
This (one); that (one) (f) - dee 

Refers to people
these/ those - dol

Masalan (for example)... 

This house - il bayt da

Those animals - il 7ayawanaat dee    

Comparitives & Superlatives
Comparatives are when you are comparing two things. Superlatives are when you are comparing one thing to a lot of things. Comparatives: "bigger/ more than," superlatives: "biggest/ most extrordinary" etc. In Arabic, both are used by the same word, it just depends how you use it. Comparatives and superlatives are formed by taking your adjective of choice, taking out all the vowels (forming the root) and adding an "a" to the beginning of the root, and another "a" in front of the last consonant.

big - kibeer       --> (root) kbr   --> akbar   (bigger/biggest)
cheap - rakhees --> (root) rkhs --> arkhas (cheap/ cheapest)
many - kiteer    --> (root) ktr    --> akta  (more/ most)

When using it as a comparative between two nouns substitute "min" for "than".

Masalan (for example)...

bigger than - akbar min

The girl is bigger than the boy - el bint akbar min el walad


Credits to Lonely Planet - Egyptian Arabic  

*EASY* Egyptian Arabic Possession, Prepositions & Pronouns

* 7 = ح (haa) - sounds like an aspirated "h"
* 2 = أ (hamza) - glottal stop
* 3 = ع ('ain) - a "choked" letter sounding like an "a" you can't represent with the English alphabet

These words are just like that in English. 

against - 3ala
from - min
like - zay
on - 3ala
for - 3ashaan
with - ma3


Two types of Pronouns: Subject and Object pronouns

Subject Pronouns:

I - ana
you (m) - enta
you (f) - enti
he - howa
she - hiyya
we - i7na
you - into
they - homma

Object Pronouns: 
have what is called Direct Object Pronouns and Indirect Object pronouns. Both act like suffixes and are added to the end of the verb.

Direct Object Pronouns are:

me - ee
you (m) - ak
you (f) - ik
him/ it - o
her/ it - ha
us - na
you (pl) - ko
them - hom

Masalan (for example)...

I saw them - ana shuftohom

I like it - ba7ibbo  

Indirect Object Pronouns are:

to me - nee/ -lee
to you (m) - lak
to you (f) - lik
to him - lo
to her - laha
to us - lina
to you (pl) - loko
to them - lohom

Masalan (for example)...

she talks to me -  hiyya bitkallimnee

we write to you - i7na biniktiblik

**When a direct and indirect object pronoun appear in the same sentence, the structure is:

verb + direct object + indirect object (both of which are still being added to the end of the verb)

Masalan (for example)...

Write it for me - iktib-haalee 

Send them to us - iba3at-homlina 

***These direct object pronouns can also be added to prepositions!

Masalan (for example)...

from me -  min-nee
like you (pl) - zay-ku
for them -  3ashaan-hom
This letter is from her- il maktoob da minha 

Possession - part 2

Belonging to, or bitaa3 is translated into (my, yours, our, etc). It is used only for people! It must agree with number and gender of the noun!

For Masculine Nouns:

my/ mine - bitaa3ee
your/ yours (m) - bitaa3ak
your/ yours (f) - bitaa3ik
his - bitaa3o
her - bitaa3ha
our/ours - bitaa3na
your/  yours (pl) - bitaa3ko
their/ theirs - bitaa3hom

For Feminine Nouns:

my/ mine - bitaa3tee
your/ yours (m) - bitaa3tak
your/ yours (f) - bitaa3tik
his - bitaa3to
her - bitaa3itha
our/ours - bitaa3itna
your/  yours (pl) - bitaa3itko
their/ theirs - bitaa3it-hom

Masalan (for example)...

her book (m); the book is hers - il kitab bitaa3ha

their bag (f); the bag is theirs (f) - ish shanta bitaa3it-hom 

Credits to Lonely Planet - Egyptian Arabic  

*EASY* Egyptian Verbs- Negatives!

 * 7 = ح (haa) - sounds like an aspirated "h"
* 2 = أ (hamza) - glottal stop
* 3 = ع ('ain) - a "choked" letter sounding like an "a" you can't represent with the English alphabet

Two types of negatives in Egyptian Arabic:

1. Negatives for verbs in general:

    ma- ... -sh - gets added to the beginning and ending of a verb to make it negative.

Masalan (for example)...

He went- howa ra7
He didn't go - howa mara7sh 

2. Negatives for future verbs, nouns, adjectives:  

    mesh gets added to the beginning of a verb/noun/adjective to make it negative.

Masalan (for exmaple)...

I will not write - mesh 7aktib

This is not good - da mesh kuwayyis

I'm not an engineer (m). - ana mesh mohandis 

Credits to Lonely Planet Phrasebooks: Egyptian Arabic.

Thursday, July 21, 2011

*EASY* Egyptian Verb Conjugations Part 4 - Modals

Modals are verbs that are used with another verb! These MUST agree with subject of the sentence. When modals are used in Arabic, each verb in conjugated based on the subject. For example, "I could write" is literally I was- I can- I write. (kuint a2dar aktib)

* 7 = ح (haa) - sounds like an aspirated "h"
* 2 = أ (hamza) - glottal stop
* 3 = ع ('ain) - a "choked" letter sounding like an "a" you can't represent with the English alphabet


"dar" in the imperfect form is used to express "can." (look up imperfect forms in Easy Egyptian Verb Conjugations Part 1).

I can - a2dar
you (m) can - ti2dar
you (f) can - ti2daree
he can - yi2dar
she can - ti2dar
we can - ni2dar
you (pl) can - ti2daro
they can - yi2daro

This is expressed by putting "to be" (kaan) before the imperfect of (dar) or "can." **Remember Each verb MUST agree in subject.  I could write, remember, is "I was- I can- I write" 

I could write -kuint a2dar aktib
you (m) could write - kuint ti2dar tiktib
you (f) could write - kuintee ti2daree tiktibee
he could write - kaan yi2dar yiktib
she could write - kaanit ti2dar tiktib
we could write - konna ni2dar niktib
you (pl) could write - konto ti2daro tiktibo
they could write - kanno yi2daro yiktibo 

Super easy conjugations-- nothing special about this one! 
I (f) want - 3ayza
I (m) want - 3aayiz
you (m)  want - 3aayiz
you (f) want - 3ayza
he/it wants - 3aayiz
she/ it wants - 3ayza
we want - 3ayzeen
you (pl) want -3ayzeen
they want - 3ayzeen 

In order to use "to want" with another verb, you must use both in the imperfect form. 

Masalan (for example)...

She wants to go - 3ayza tiroo7 (she wants- she goes) 

We want to go - 3ayzeen niroo7 (we want- we go)

To say that you 'wanted' to do something, you put the past tense of kaan "to be" in front of the imperfect form of ayiz "to want." 

I (f) wanted to go - kuint 3ayza aroo7
I (m) wanted to go - kuint 3aayiz aroo7
you (m) wanted to go - kuint 3aayiz tiroo7
you (f) wanted to go - kuintee 3ayza tiroo7ee
he wanted to go - kaan 3aayiz yiroo7
she wanted to go - kaanit 3ayza tiroo7
we wanted to go - konna 3ayzeen niroo7
you (pl) wanted to go - konto 3ayzeen tiroo7o
they wanted to go - kanno 3ayzeen yiroo7o 

Must/ Have to/ Need to 
All these meanings are represented as mi7taag in Egyptian Arabic. It acts the same was as 'can' and 'want' when used with other verbs. I not quite sure why, but it is conjugated exactly like "to want" except for the masculine... the masculine just stays as mi7taag. But everything else is just like "to want."

Masalam (for example)...

I (f) need a coffee - mi7taaga ahwa
I (m) need a coffee - mi7taag ahwa
you (m) need a coffee - mi7taag ahwa
you (f) need a coffee - mi7taaga ahwa
he needs a coffee - mi7taag ahwa
she needs a coffee - mi7taaga ahwa
we need a coffee - mi7tageen ahwa
you (pl) need a coffee - mi7tageen ahwa
they need a coffee - mi7tageen ahwa   

To Like/ To Love
These two words mean the same thing in Arabic. At least they are represented by the same word, which is yi7ibb. It is exactly like the other modals, but you add bi- at the beginning. 

I like to travel - ba7ibb asaafir 
you (m) like to travel - bit7ibb tisaafir
you (f) like to travel - bit7ibbi tisaafiree
he likes to travel - bi7ibb yisaafir

she likes to travel - bit7ibb tisaafir
we like to travel - bin7ibb nisaafir
you (pl) like to travel - bit7ibboo tisaafiro
they like to travel - bi7ibboo yisaafiro 

Credits to Lonely Planet Phrasebooks: Egyptian Arabic.

*Easy* Verb conjugations Part 3 - To Have & Possessive

In order to understand the verb to have, we must first learn the possessive suffixes. These are endings you attach to a noun in Arabic that shows possession. You own it, it is yours! Lets learn what these suffixes are!

* 7 = ح (haa) - sounds like an aspirated "h"
* 2 = أ (hamza) - glottal stop
* 3 = ع ('ain) - a "choked" letter sounding like an "a" you can't represent with the English alphabet

*Masculine nouns take the suffix, feminine nouns (that end in -a), take off the -a, add -it, then add the suffix. 

my - ee
your (m) - ak
your (f) - ik
his/ its - o
her/ its - ha
our - na
your - ko
their - hom

Masalan (for example)...

Masculine nouns:
book  -  kitab
my book - kitab-ee 

house - bayt
their house - bayt-hom

Feminine nouns: 
ticket - tazkara 
your ticket - tazkarit- ik

bag - shanta
our bag - shantit-na  

To Have
Why does the verb "to have" need to know the possessives? Because these suffixes, like with the nouns, get added to the end of the verb "3and" - to have. It makes sense because if you have something... it's yours isn't it? :)

To make the present, just add the possessive suffixes to "3and." 

To have - Present
I have - 3andee
you (m) have -3andak
you (f) have - 3andik
he has - 3ando
she has - 3andaha
we have - 3andina
you (pl) have - 3andoko
they have - 3andohom

To have - Past
just add "kaan" (to be) to "3and" in the present! 

I had - kaan 3andee
you (m) had - kaan 3andak
you (f) had - kaan 3andik
he had - kaan 3ando
she had - kaan 3andaha
we had - kaan 3andina
you (pl) had - kaan 3andoko
they had - kaan 3andohom

To have - Future
To "have" something in the future, just add the future form of "to be" (7aykoon) to 3and in the present.

I will have - 7aykoon 3andee
you (m) will have - 7aykoon 3andak
you (f) will have - 7aykoon 3andik
he will have - 7aykoon 3ando
she will have - 7aykoon 3andaha
we will have - 7aykoon 3andina
you (pl) will have - 7aykoon 3andoko
they will have - 7aykoon 3andohom

Credits to Lonely Planet Phrasebooks: Egyptian Arabic.